Problem Description:
This statistical analysis assignment aims to explore the "hostile mediator phenomenon" (HMP), a broader concept related to the wellknown "hostile media phenomenon" (HMP) where rival partisans perceive various public institutions as biased against their sides. The dataset focuses on Facebook bias perceptions among Democrats and Republicans, and gender differences in perceived bias about President Trump.
1. Facebook Bias Perceptions among Democrats and Republicans
Variable name in the dataset  What was measured  Possible responses  Scale of measurement 

gender  Gender  0 = Male 1 = Female 
Nominal 
facebook_item  Facebook bias  The range of answers is between 1 to 9, with: 1 = Bias in favour of Trump 5 = Neutral 9 = Bias against Trump 
Quasiinterval (Continuous) 
partisan_group  Partisan groups  0 = Democrats 1 = Independents / Other 2 = Republican 
Nominal 
Table 1: Bias perceptions on both Democrats and Republicans
The researcher wanted to know whether Republicans and Democrats (separately) perceive a bias in favour or against President Trump on Facebook (facebook_item). To test his hypotheses, please execute the following six steps:
Solution
Hypothesis Testing Steps:
 Exclude nonDemocrats.
 Test if Democrats' Facebook bias significantly differs from neutrality.
 Cancel the filter.
 Exclude nonRepublicans.
 Test if Republicans' Facebook bias significantly differs from neutrality.
 Cancel the filter.
1. Researcher's Hypothesis: The researcher's hypothesis is twotailed, as it posits that Democrats' Facebook bias can be either lower or higher than neutrality (5).
2. Test Conducted in b and e: One sample ttest was conducted.
3. Results of Tests for Democrats and Republicans: Democrats:
 Mean: 4.86, SD: 0.085, Sample Size: 787
 Result: No significant difference from 5 (p = 0.1037).
Republicans:
 Mean: 6.28, SD: 0.094, Sample Size: 787
 Result: Significant difference from 5 (p < 0.0001).
Summary Statistics
Mean 
4.8614994 
Std Dev 
2.3852557 
Std Err Mean  0.0850252 
Upper 95%Mean 
5.0284027 
Lower 95%Mean  4.6945961 
N  787 
Test Mean
Hypothesized Value 
5 
Actual Estimate  4.8615 
DF  786 
Std Dev  2.38526

t Test
Test Statistic 
1.6289 
Prob >It  0.1037 
Prob >t  0.9481 
Prob 
0.0519 
Table 4: Test for Democrats and Republicans
4. Interpretation: For Democrats, bias perception is neutral. Republicans perceive a significant bias against Trump on Facebook.
2. Gender Differences in Facebook Bias
The researcher wanted to test for gender differences in perceived bias on Facebook for or against Trump (facebook_item)
The researcher wanted to test for gender differences in perceived bias on Facebook for or against Trump (facebook_item)
 Test Required: Two independent ttests.
 Test Results: Levene’s test showed unequal variances. Independent ttest: no significant difference (p = 0.0888).
 Report on Test Results: Men and women have a similar perception of Facebook bias related to Trump (Male: M = 5.68, Female: M = 5.47).
 N Discrepancy Explanation: The N value is lower due to missing values in Facebook bias.
3. Comparative Analysis of Traumatic Event Experiences
The following table presents the results of comparisons between means of parents and their adolescent children in their experience of traumatic events.
All quantitative variables were tested on a scale of 1 (Low) to 7 (High).
Variable name in the dataset  What was measured  Possible responses  Scale of measurement 

gender  Gender  0 = Male 1 = Female 
Nominal 
facebook_item  Facebook bias  The range of answers is between 1 to 9, with: 1 = Bias in favour of Trump 5 = Neutral 9 = Bias against Trump 
Quasiinterval (Continuous) 
partisan_group  Partisan groups  0 = Democrats 1 = Independents / Other 2 = Republican 
Nominal 
Table 5: A scale to compare the quantitative variables
 Tests Conducted: Two independent ttests.
 Significant Results: Three significant differences in exposure, individual resilience, and selfdifferentiation.
 Analysis for 'Individual Resilience': Significant difference (p < 0.05). Parents show slightly higher resilience (M = 3.94) compared to adolescents (M = 3.73).
 Analysis for 'Family Resilience': No significant difference (p > 0.05). Parents and adolescents exhibit similar family resilience.
 Interpretation of pvalue (for 'SelfDifferentiation'): Significant difference (p < 0.05). Adolescents (M = 4.45) selfdifferentiate more than parents (M = 4.23).