Epidemiology Assignment Help
Epidemiology can be defined as the study of the distribution of a disease in a given population and the determinants of that distribution using statistics. The word “epidemiology” was derived from Greek words “epi” (“upon” or “on”), demos (“people”), and logos (“study of”). Epidemiology is data driven and uses an unbiased and systematic approach to collect, analyze, and interpret data. However, the discipline does not only provide a solid ground for research; it also provides knowledge on how to apply probability and statistics to control health problems. We provide epidemiology assignment help to college and university students who have difficulties tackling projects from this subject. If you are struggling with the subject too, don’t hesitate to contact us for assistance.
Branches Of Epidemiology
Epidemiology is divided into five major disciplines:
- Molecular epidemiology: This field of epidemiology involves applying the concepts of molecular biology such as nucleic acid analysis, polymerase chain reaction, DNA cloning, etc. to study health problems. It is mostly applied when studying epidemics caused by viral agents. To know more about molecular epidemiology, connect with our epidemiology homework help experts.
- Disaster epidemiology: In this discipline, scientists study the factors that cause various disasters. They also study the mechanisms that can be utilized to minimize the negative health impacts of the disasters. A disaster can be either natural (caused by nature e.g. floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.) or man-made (caused by humans e.g. oil and chemical spills, fire, etc.) The role of disaster epidemiology is to provide information about the nature and magnitude of the calamity to disaster relief workers to help mitigate the problem. If you would like to have this area elaborated further by an expert, consider hiring our online epidemiology tutors.
- Environmental epidemiology: This branch of epidemiology studies how human health is impacted by environmental exposures. It seeks to understand the extent to which external risk factors can put a population at risk of an illnesses, diseases, developmental abnormalities, injuries, or death. If your assignment requires you to expound on environmental epidemiology and you are not sure how to go about it, consider availing our epidemiology homework help service.
- Travel epidemiology: This discipline studies the health risks and concerns associated with population’s movements from one place to another or from one country to another. The primary role of travel epidemiology is to research and provide health related information to a population so that those who are planning to travel can have a safe trip. In high altitude areas, for instance, health risks such as heat exhaustion, snow blindness, frostbite, dehydration, etc. are possible. By providing this information as well as ways to stay safe in such regions, travelers are able to plan accordingly. Our epidemiology assignment help service offers quality assistance on any homework derived from this topic.
- Occupational epidemiology: In this discipline, researchers investigate the health outcomes of employees and how they are related to certain workplace conditions such as noise, heat, radiation, chemicals, work schedules etc. Occupational epidemiologists help come up with ways that can reduce conditions or risk factors that affect the health of employees in a workplace. If you are having trouble compiling homework on occupational epidemiology, let us know and we will prepare an impeccable epidemiology assignment solution on this topic.
Public Health Issues And Events Studied During An Epidemic Investigation
There are several elements that epidemiologist investigate when studying a population:
- Infectious diseases
- Pneumonia and influenza
- Foodborne illness
- Environmental exposures
- Asthma triggers like air pollutants
- Lead and heavy metals
- A surge in domestic violence
- An increase in number of homicides in a population
- Non-infectious diseases
- An increase in number of birth defects
- A widespread or localized rise in a specific strain of a disease
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Types Of Epidemiological Studies
While epidemiology is subdivided into various disciplines, all these disciplines fall under four major categories:
- Cross-sectional studies: This category of epidemiology studies measure the characteristics of people or prevalence of conditions in a given population over a short period of time. Even though cross-sectional studies are essentially descriptive, the results obtained can often suggest the risk or causative factors associated with a particular behavior or illness. In cross-sectional studies, the researchers do not necessarily need to study the entire population; only a sample is required, given that the group that make up the sample has similar characteristics to the entire population being investigated. Cross-sectional studies are commonly used to plan public health interventions. The population can be studied in a number of ways including:
- Filling out questionnaires
- Analyzing blood specimens
- Taking measurements
- Examining healthcare records
- Case control studies: In these studies, epidemiologists attempt to study the cause of a disease. “Case” in this context is an individual who has a specific medical condition of symptom and “control” is a person who has no medical condition or symptom. In these studies, a group of “cases” are investigated and the results compared with a “control” group. If the two groups were previously exposed to the condition being investigated, the causing factors are investigated. If there is a difference between the methods of exposure in both groups, the causal link between the condition and the causing factors is inferred.
- Cohort studies: These studies focus on a group of individuals who display certain characteristics or attributes in relation to their health behavior. What epidemiologists do during a cohort investigation is that they observe the group over a given period to see what happens to individual members in respect to each person’s behavior. They also check to see if there is any relationship between the individuals’behavior and the condition being investigated.
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The Epidemiology Triad
The epidemiological triad shows how a disease causative agents, persons or hosts and environment interact with each other within a given period of time. This approach can be employed in non-infectious diseases where the causative agent could be unsafe practices, unhealthy behaviors, or unintended exposures to harmful substances. It is best represented diagrammatically as below:
In an epidemiological triad, the causative agent is commonly referred to as a “necessary” factor. This basically means that it must be present for an illness to occur, although it may not necessarily cause a disease. For an illness to occur, there has to be “sufficient” factors, which include a host (a person susceptible to the agent) and environmental factors. Whether an individual is susceptible to the disease causing agent or not can be determined by a number of factors including gender, age, occupation, ethnic group, etc.
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Epidemiology Triad Terminology
Agent: This is an infectious pathogen or microorganism. It can be a bacterium, parasite, virus, or other microbe and as stated, it must be present for an illness to occur. There are various factors that influence whether an exposure to an agent will cause an illness or not including the agent’s ability to cause an illness and its distribution. The causative agents can also include chemical contaminants like the L-tryptophan contaminant that has been found to cause eosinophilia myalgia syndrome.
Host: The host is the person who gets the disease. We highlighted sex, age, occupation, and ethnic group as some of the factors that influence the person’s opportunities for exposure to the agent. However, sometimes aspects like hygiene, sexual practices and other lifestyle choices may also increase risk of exposure. But how a person’s body eventually responds to the agent is determined by the genetic composition, anatomic structure, immunologic and nutritional status, psychological makeup, and the presence of an underlying medical condition.
Environment: This includes the external factors that affect an individual’s exposure to a disease causing agent. They include biological factors like insects that transport the agent, physical factors like climate and geology, and social-economic factors like sanitation, crowding, and availability of health facilities.
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