## Problem Description:

The statistical analysis assignment using SPSS explores the meaning of p < .05 within the context of inferential statistics, focusing on the Neyman-Pearson school–null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The paper identifies and discusses misconceptions and limitations of NHST, emphasizing the debate surrounding its efficacy. Additionally, the assignment includes two parts presenting results from studies investigating perceived physical attractiveness and psychopathology, as well as alcohol consumption and memory. A final section outlines an imaginary study assessing the average height of individuals in a football team.

### Revised Assignment Solution:

The field of inferential statistics encompasses various approaches, each with its nuances. This paper delves into the Neyman-Pearson school – null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), shedding light on its debates, misconceptions, and limitations. The objective is to offer a comprehensive understanding of statistical significance, particularly represented by p < .05.

### NHST Misconceptions and Limitations:

NHST faces criticisms for its inability to provide researchers with the desired insights. Two critical errors, Type I and Type II, contribute to its limitations. The misconception that the size of p-values signifies the strength of a relationship is addressed, emphasizing that p-values only indicate rejection or non-rejection of the null hypothesis. Furthermore, the paper dispels the idea that statistical significance implies practical or theoretical significance. NHST's weaknesses, such as reliance on arbitrary cut-offs, contribute to the ongoing replication crisis in various fields.

## Alternative Approaches:

To overcome NHST limitations, the paper suggests alternatives like effect sizes, confidence intervals, and power analysis. These approaches offer a more nuanced understanding of relationships, addressing the shortcomings of NHST. By focusing on statistical power, effect size measures, and confidence intervals, researchers can enhance the robustness of their studies.

**Results Section 1: Perceived Physical Attractiveness and Psychopathology:
**

A bivariate Pearson’s correlation explored the relationship between perceived physical attractiveness and psychopathology. Assumption testing confirmed normality for psychopathology but not for attractiveness. The positive linear relationship (r = 0.329, p = 0.019) supports the hypothesis that attractiveness is associated with psychopathology. These results highlight the need to consider normality assumptions when interpreting relationships between variables.

**Results Section 2: Alcohol Consumption and Memory:
**

A paired samples t-test examined the impact of alcohol consumption on memory. Normality was confirmed for all variables. The significant difference (p = 0.000) in the number of words correctly recalled before and after alcohol consumption supports the hypothesis that alcohol negatively affects memory. These findings underscore the importance of considering assumptions and selecting appropriate statistical tests.

**Results Section 3: Imaginary Study on Average Height:
**

A one-sample t-test was applied to assess the average height of a football team. Normality testing confirmed the suitability of the data for analysis. The results (p = 0.002) support the hypothesis that the average height exceeds 100 cm, with an average height of 121.43 cm. This imaginary study demonstrates the application of statistical tests to validate hypotheses in real-world scenarios.

## Conclusion:

In conclusion, this assignment provides an in-depth exploration of p < .05 within the context of NHST, dispelling misconceptions and highlighting limitations. The results sections underscore the importance of assumption testing and appropriate statistical methods in drawing meaningful conclusions from empirical studies.